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That education is free and government-funded and that there is adequate infrastructure and trained teachers able to support education delivery.

Possible questions to consider:

Is primary education free and compulsory?

If not, is there a government plan to achieve free and compulsory primary education, with a reasonable time frame and budget?

Is sufficient money allocated for all children to receive primary education?

Is the state making concrete steps towards achieving free secondary and higher education?

Are teachers well trained, and do they receive domestically competitive salaries, do they have appropriate working conditions, teaching materials and the right to organise?

Are school buildings safe, do sanitation facilities exist, and is there safe drinking water, a library, ICT resources?

Possible indicators and violations:

Education should be free and government funded with an adequate infrastructure and trained teachers able to support education delivery, e.g. safe buildings, a school in a village, enough teachers, free textbooks and uniforms, sanitation facilities and appropriate transport.

Indicator: Primary education must be free and compulsory. (ICESCR Art. 13 (2)(a), CRC Art. 28 (1)(a)). Possible violation: Universal, free and compulsory primary education does not exist or is not accessible to all. If it is compulsory but not free there is a clear violation.

Indicator: Where free and compulsory primary education is not yet in place, a plan must be developed to achieve it within a reasonable timeframe. (ICESCR Art. 14). Possible violation: If education is not free and compulsory and the government has not developed a plan to make it so.

Indicator: Budgetary allocations at the central and local level should correspond to the guarantee of free and compulsory education for all children up to the minimum age for employment and progressive realisation of the right to education. Possible violation: The State invests disproportionate resources in post-primary, especially university-level education, particularly if it comes at the expense of primary education. This may be manifested by the significant limitation of the number of hours during which public primary schools are open.

Indicator: Obligation to take concrete steps towards achieving free secondary and higher education. (ICESCR Art. 13 (2)(b)(c))

Indicator: Trained teachers must receive domestically competitive salaries, enjoy better working conditions, and have access to teaching materials. Equally they must have the right to organize and bargain collectively and enjoy other conditions and status in line with their role. (ICESCR General Comment 13). Possible violation: Where there is insufficient teacher recruiting, training and retention, including insufficient pay, or where teachers lose their jobs because of education budget cuts.

Indicator: Functioning educational institutions and programmes have to be available in sufficient quantity within the jurisdiction of the State party. What they require to function depends upon numerous factors, including the developmental context within which they operate; for example, all institutions and programmes are likely to require buildings or other protection from the elements, sanitation facilities for both sexes, and safe drinking water. Some will also require facilities such as a library, computer facilities and information technology. Possible violation: Where infrastructure in educational institutions is not of sufficient quality with regard to the adjacent indicators.

Indicator: Obligation to respect parental freedom to choose education for their children, observing the principle of the best interests of the child.