Pressure from above
When a country ratifies a treaty, it often incurs an additional obligation to submit regular reports to the monitoring committee set up under that treaty (if one has been established) on how the rights in question are being implemented. To meet their reporting obligations, States must submit an initial report, usually one year after joining (two years in the case of the CRC), and then periodically in accordance with the provisions of the treaty (usually every four or five years).
In addition to the government report, the treaty bodies may receive information on a country’s human rights situation from other sources, including non-governmental organizations, UN agencies, other intergovernmental organizations, academic institutions and the press. In the light of all the information available, the Committee examines the report together with government representatives. Based on this dialogue, the Committee will publish its concerns and recommendations, often referred to as “concluding observations”. A list of the reporting obligations for each treaty can be found under the different committees listed on the 'Taking your case to the treaty bodies and committees' page.
Consider the General Comments of International Treaty Bodies
Many international conventions establish a committee to monitor and advise on the implementation of its provisions. To this end, committees frequently make General Comments on particular provisions, as guidance as to how the provision should be implemented. Serving to elucidate the obligations of the State, a General Comment is an authoritative interpretation of binding obligations.