Guarentees vs Commitments
International law versus global commitments 1990-2010
International legal guarantees
Global political commitments
Universal Declaration (1948):
Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory.
UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960):
The States Parties to this Convention undertake to formulate, develop and apply a national policy which ... will ... in particular … make primary education free and compulsory.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966):
Primary education shall be compulsory and available free for all.
Protocol of San Salvador to the American Convention on Human Rights (1988)
The States Parties to this Protocol recognize that … primary education should be compulsory and accessible to all without cost.
Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989):
States Parties … shall, in particular … make primary education compulsory and available free for all.
Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child (1990):
States Parties to the present Charter … shall in particular: provide free and compulsory basic education.
(Revised) European Social Charter (1996):
… the Parties undertake, either directly or in co-operation with public and private organizations … to provide to children and young persons a free primary and secondary education as well as to encourage regular attendance at schools.
Jomtien Conference on Education for All (1990):
Every person - child, youth and adult - shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs.
Universal access to, and completion of, primary education (or whatever higher level of education is considered as “basic”) by the year 2000.
Dakar World Education Forum (2000):
We re-affirm ... that all children, young people and adults have the human right to benefit from an education that will meet their basic learning needs ... Ensuring that by 2015 all children … have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.
United Nations Millennium Development Goals (2000):
Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.
World Summit Outcome (2005):
We reaffirm our commitment to support developing country efforts to ensure that all children have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.
Source: Katarina Tomasevski - Free or Fee: 2006 Global Report