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Fee or for free in Africa

Laws and policies on free or for-fee primary education in Africa

 

 

Country

Legal guarantees of free education

Governmental policies on free or for-fee education

Angola

 

No

For-fee

 

Benin

Progressive

 

For-fee

 

Botswana

 

No

For-fee

 

Burkina Faso

Progressive

 

For-fee

 

Burundi

 

No

 

Free

Cameroon

 

No

 

Free

Cape Verde

 

No

For-fee

 

Central African Republic

 

No

For-fee

 

Chad

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Comoros

 

No

For-fee

 

Côte d’Ivoire

 

No

For-fee

 

Congo/Brazzaville

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Congo/Kinshasa

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Equatorial Guinea

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Eritrea

Progressive

 

For-fee

 

Ethiopia

 

No

For-fee

 

Gabon

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Gambia

Yes

 

 

Free

Ghana

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Guinea

 

No

For-fee

 

Guinea-Bissau

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Kenya

 

No

 

Free

Lesotho

Progressive

 

 

Free

Liberia

 

No

 

Free

Madagascar

Yes

 

 

Free

Malawi

 

No

 

Free

Mali

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Mauritania

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Mauritius

Yes

 

 

Free

Mozambique

 

No

For-fee

 

Namibia

Yes

 

 

Free

Niger

Yes

 

For-fee

 

Nigeria

Progressive

 

 

Free

Rwanda

Yes

 

 

Free

Sao Tomé & Principe

Yes

 

 

Free

Senegal

Yes

 

 

Free

Seychelles

Yes

 

 

Free

Sierra Leone

 

No

 

Free

Somalia

 

No

 

Free

South Africa

 

No

For-fee

 

Swaziland

Yes

 

 

Free

Tanzania

 

No

 

Free

Togo

Progressive

 

For-fee

 

Uganda

 

No

 

Free

Zambia

 

No

 

Free

Zimbabwe

 

No

 

Free

 

Note: Where the constitution mandates primary education to be free, this is denoted by a yes. The absence of such guarantee is marked with a no. The third option, progressive reflects a commitment to gradual introduction and broadening of free education as circumstances permit. This term, progressive, reflects the requirement of international human rights treaties on the progressive realization of the right to education where it cannot be guaranteed fully and immediately.

Sources: Angola - Human Development Report: Angola 1998, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), Luanda, 1998; Benin - E/1990/5/Add.48, 2001, paras. 322 and 395-397 and CRC/C/15/Add.106, 1999, para. 324; Botswana - CERD/C/407/Add.1, 2002, para. 36; Burkina Faso - CRC/C/65/Add.18, 2002, paras. 13, 323, 341, 375 and 515; Burundi - CRC/C/3/Add.58, 1998, paras. 50, 55 and 195; Cameroon - CRC/C/28/Add.16, 2001, paras. 192-193 and 217; Cape Verde - CRC/C/11/Add.23, 2001, para. 14 9; Central African Republic - CRC/C/11/Add.18, 2000, paras. 67-68 and CRC/C/15/Add.138, 2000, para. 49; Chad - CRC/C/3/Add.50, 1997, paras. 37, 42 and 176; Comoros - CRC/C/100, 2000, para. 640; Côte d’Ivoire - CRC/C/8/Add.41, 2000, paras. 81, 83 and 173; Congo/Brazzaville - Education pour tous: Bilan à l’an 2000: Rapport national du Congo; Congo/Kinshasa - CRC/C/3/Add.57, 2000, paras. 25, 149 and 156; Equatorial Guinea - E/CN.4/1996/67, paras. 66-67; Eritrea - CRC/C/41/Add.12, 2002, paras. 16, 87, 302 and 329; Ethiopia - CRC/C/15/Add.144, 2001, paras. 66-67; Gabon - CRC/C/41/Add.10, 2001, paras. 82, 177, 215 and 218; Gambia - CRC/C/3/Add.61, 2000, paras. 176, 179, 183 and 189; Ghana - CERD/C/43/Add.3, 2002, paras. 57 and 122; Guinea - CRC/C/3/Add.48, 1997, para. 140 and E/C.12/1/Add.5, 1996, para. 193; Guinea-Bissau - CRC/C/3/Add.63, 2001, paras. 214-217; Kenya - Status report on preparatory activities and way forward for the economic recovery strategy paper for Kenya, Prepared by the Government of the Republic of Kenya on 12 September 2003; Lesotho - CRC/C/11/Add.20, 1998, paras. 180, 187 and 192; Liberia - CRC/C/28/Add.21, 2000, paras. 73-78; Madagascar - CRC/C/8/Add.5, 1996, paras. 215, 218 and 220; Malawi - CRC/C/8/Add.43, 2001, paras. 38, 67 and 253-255; Mali - CERD/C/407/Add.2, 2002, paras. 129-130; Mauritania - CRC/C/8/Add.42, 2001, paras. 1, 226, 249 and 267; Mauritius - CRC/C/3/Add.36, 1995, para. 100 and E/1990/5/Add.21, 1994, para. 338; Mozambique - CRC/C/41/Add.11, 2001, paras. 374, 396 and 458-459; Namibia - CRC/C/3/Add.12, 1993, paras. 343-346 and Monitoring the 20/20 Compact, UNICEF, Windhoek, June 1997; Niger - CRC/C/3/Add.29/Rev.1, paras. 273-274 and 306; Nigeria - Education for All: The year 2000 assessment, Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja, 2000; Rwanda - CERD/C/335/Add.1, 1999, para. 63; Senegal - E/1990/6/Add.25, 2000, paras. 105 and 108; Seychelles - CERD/C/430/Add.1, 2003, paras. 359, 374 and 377; Sierra Leone - CRC/C/3/Add.43, 1996, para. 77 and CRC/C/15/Add.116, 2000 para. 374; South Africa - CRC/C/51/Add.2, 1998, paras. 394 and 399; Sudan - Report on Sudan: Education for All. The year 2000 assessment, Ministry of Education, Educational Assessment Department, Khartoum, 2000; Swaziland - The development of education: National report of Swaziland by the Ministry of Education, 24 June 1996; Tanzania - Primary education development plan 2002-2006, Ministry of Education Dar es Salaam, 2002; Togo - CCPR/C/TGO/2001/3, paras. 80 and 84; Uganda - CERD/C/358/Add.1, 2001, para. 86 and Education strategic investment plan 1998-2003, Government of Uganda, Kampala, November 1998; Zambia - CRC/C/11/Add.25, 2002, paras. 329, 362, 442 and 482; Zimbabwe - CERD/C/329/Add.1, 1998, paras. 3 and 15, E/1990/5/Add.28, 1997, para. 194 and CRC/C/15/Add.55, 1996, para. 19.

 

Source: Katarina Tomasevski - Free or Fee: 2006 Global Report